Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.
Dieting and exercising are the main treatments for obesity. Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber. Anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption. If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon may assist with weight loss, or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to feeling full earlier and a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.
Some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited. On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and in few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or psychiatric illness.
People are considered obese when their body mass index (BMI) exceeds 30 kg/m2. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children and is one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century.
Diets to promote weight loss are generally divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie. A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no difference between three of the main diet types (low calorie, low carbohydrate, and low fat), with a 2 to 4 kilogram weight loss in all studies. At two years these three methods resulted in similar weight loss irrespective of the macronutrients emphasized. High protein diets do not appear to make any difference. A diet high in simple sugars such as those in soft drinks increases weight.
Very low calorie diets provide 200–800 kcal/day, maintaining protein intake but limiting calories from both fat and carbohydrates. They subject the body to starvation and produce an average weekly weight loss of 1.5–2.5 kilograms (3.3–5.5 lb). These diets are not recommended for general use as they are associated with adverse side effects such as loss of lean muscle mass, increased risks of gout, and electrolyte imbalances. People attempting these diets must be monitored closely by a physician to prevent complications.
Muscles consume energy derived from both fat and glycogen, due to the large size of leg muscles, walking, running, and cycling are the most effective means of exercise to reduce body fat. Exercise affects macronutrient balance. During moderate exercise, equivalent to a brisk walk, there is a shift to greater use of fat as a fuel. American Heart Association recommends a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate exercise at least 5 days a week.
Exercising alone led to limited weight loss but together in combination with diet, results in a 1 kilogram weight loss over dieting alone. High levels of physical activity seem to be necessary to maintain weight loss
Weight loss programs:
Weight loss programs often promote lifestyle changes and diet modification. This may involve eating smaller meals, cutting down on certain types of food, and making a conscious effort to exercise more. These programs also enable people to connect with a group of others who are attempting to lose weight, in the hopes that participants will form mutually motivating and encouraging relationships.
In addition there are a large number of diet products and programs available on the internet. These diet programs may be web based programs, or programs that are downloaded by the dieter.
There exist Several anti-obesity medications are currently approved by the FDA for long term use. Please check with you local health provider for the best weight loss medicine for you. Few Weight loss medicines have side effects
Bariatric surgery or weight loss surgery is the use of surgical intervention in the treatment of obesity. As every operation may have complications, surgery is only recommended for severely obese people (BMI > 40) who have failed to lose weight following dietary modification and pharmacological treatment. Weight loss surgery relies on various principles such as reducing the volume of the stomach, which produces an earlier sense of satiation, and reducing the length of bowel that comes into contact with food (gastric bypass surgery), which directly reduces absorption. Band surgery is reversible, while bowel shortening operations are not. Some procedures can be performed laparoscopically. Complications from weight loss surgery are frequent. Surgery for severe obesity is associated with long-term weight loss and decreased overall mortality.
It is recommended to consult your local health authorities before starting with any medicine, exercise or diet plan.
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