The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle. Success rates of long-term weight loss maintenance with lifestyle changes are low ranging from 2 to 20%. Dietary and lifestyle changes are effective in limiting excessive weight gain in pregnancy and improve outcomes for both the mother and the child.
Diets to promote weight loss are generally divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie. A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no difference between three of the main diet types (low calorie, low carbohydrate, and low fat), with a 2 to 4 kilogram weight loss in all studies. At two years these three methods resulted in similar weight loss irrespective of the macronutrients emphasized. High protein diets do not appear to make any difference. A diet high in simple sugars such as those in soft drinks increases weight.
Very low calorie diets provide 200–800 kcal/day, maintaining protein intake but limiting calories from both fat and carbohydrates. They subject the body to starvation and produce an average weekly weight loss of 1.5–2.5 kilograms (3.3–5.5 lb). These diets are not recommended for general use as they are associated with adverse side effects such as loss of lean muscle mass, increased risks of gout, and electrolyte imbalances. People attempting these diets must be monitored closely by a physician to prevent complications.
Muscles consume energy derived from both fat and glycogen, due to the large size of leg muscles, walking, running, and cycling are the most effective means of exercise to reduce body fat. Exercise affects macronutrient balance. During moderate exercise, equivalent to a brisk walk, there is a shift to greater use of fat as a fuel. American Heart Association recommends a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate exercise at least 5 days a week.
Exercising alone led to limited weight loss but together in combination with diet, results in a 1 kilogram weight loss over dieting alone. High levels of physical activity seem to be necessary to maintain weight loss
Weight loss programs:
Weight loss programs often promote lifestyle changes and diet modification. This may involve eating smaller meals, cutting down on certain types of food, and making a conscious effort to exercise more. These programs also enable people to connect with a group of others who are attempting to lose weight, in the hopes that participants will form mutually motivating and encouraging relationships.
In addition there are a large number of diet products and programs available on the internet. These diet programs may be web based programs, or programs that are downloaded by the dieter.
There exist Several anti-obesity medications are currently approved by the FDA for long term use. Please check with you local health provider for the best weight loss medicine for you. Few Weight loss medicines have side effects
Bariatric surgery or weight loss surgery is the use of surgical intervention in the treatment of obesity. As every operation may have complications, surgery is only recommended for severely obese people (BMI > 40) who have failed to lose weight following dietary modification and pharmacological treatment. Weight loss surgery relies on various principles such as reducing the volume of the stomach, which produces an earlier sense of satiation, and reducing the length of bowel that comes into contact with food (gastric bypass surgery), which directly reduces absorption. Band surgery is reversible, while bowel shortening operations are not. Some procedures can be performed laparoscopically. Complications from weight loss surgery are frequent. Surgery for severe obesity is associated with long-term weight loss and decreased overall mortality.
It is recommended to consult your local health authorities before starting with any medicine, exercise or diet plan.
» BMI Calculator (Body Mass Index)
» BMR Calculator (Find your daily calorie requirement - Basal Metabolic Rate)
» Ideal Weight Calculator (for Adult)
» Weight Management (for Adult)